The following references refer to the topics discussed on this website. Many of them have downloadable summaries, simply click on the relevant link.

For more detailed information on causes and prevention of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE), including evidence for Flowtron™ Intermittent Pneumatic Compression (IPC) therapy, refer to the downloadablle Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Clinical Evidence Document.

Brooks PJ, Keramati M, Wickline A.
Thromboembolism in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty with Epidural Analgesia. Journal of Arthroplasty. 2007; 22(5): 641-643.

Chen A, Frangos S, Kilaru S et al. Intermittent pneumatic compression devices – physiological mechanisms of action. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. 2001; 21: 383-392.

Cohen AT, Tapson VF, Bergman J-F et al. Venous thromboembolism and prophylaxis in the acute hospital setting (ENDORSE study): a multinational cross-sectional study. Lancet. 2008; 371: 387-394.

Comerota AJ, Chouhan AV, Harada RN et al. The fibrinolytic effects of intermittent pneumatic compression. Mechanism of enhanced fibrinolysis. Annals of Surgery. 1997; 226(3): 306-314.

Chouhan VD, Comerota AJ, Sun L. Inhibition of tissue factor pathway during intermittent pneumatic compression: a possible mechanism for antithrombotic effect. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. 1999; 19: 2812-2817.

ECRI Evaluation Update. Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices: Health Devices. ECRI Institute, www.ecri.org. 2009; 120-123.

Fedullo P. Comparison of thigh and calf-length Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices for Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients. Presented at The American Thoracic Society. 1994.

Flam E, Berry S, Coyle A et al. DVT prophylaxis: comparison of two thigh-high intermittent pneumatic compression systems. Presented at the meeting of the American College of Surgeons, San Francisco. 1993.

Flam E, Berry S, Coyle A et al. Blood Flow Augmentation of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Systems Used for the Prevention of Deep Vein Thrombosis Prior to Surgery. Am. Journ. Surg. 1996; 171(3): 312-315.

Geerts WH, Bergqvist D, Pineo GF et al. Prevention of venous thromboembolism: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th edition). Chest. 2008; 133(6 suppl): 381S–453S.

Giddings JC, Ralis H, Jennings G et al. Systemic haemostasis after intermittent compression. Clues for the investigation of DVT prophylaxis and traveller's thrombosis. Clinical and Laboratory Haemotology. 2004; 26(4): 269-273.

Ginzburg E, Cohn S, Lopez J et al. Randomised clinical trial of intermittent pneumatic compression and low molecular weight heparin in trauma. British Journal of Surgery. 2003; 90: 1338-1344.

Heit J, Cohen A, Anderson FJ. Estimated annual number of incident and recurrent, non-fatal and fatal venous thromboembolism (VTE) events in the US. Blood. 2005; 106: 267A.

Kahn SR, Solymoss S, Lamping DL et al. Long-term Outcomes After Deep Vein Thrombosis: Postphlebitic Syndrome and Quality of Life. J Gen Intern Med. 2000; 15(6): 425–429.

Kamran SI, Downey D, Ruff RL et al. Pneumatic Sequential Compression Reduces the Risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Stroke Patients. Neurology. 1998; 50:1683-1688.

Kumar S, Walker M. The effects of intermittent pneumatic compression on the arterial and venous system of the lower limb: a review. Journal of Tissue Viability. 2002; 12(2): 58-65.

Morris RJ, Giddings JC, Ralis HM et al. The influence of inflation rate on the hematologic and hemodynamic effects of intermittent pneumatic calf compression for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 2006; 44: 1039-45.

Pagella P, Cipolle M, Sacco E et al. A randomised trial to evaluate compliance in terms of patient comfort and satisfaction of two pneumatic compression devices. Orthopedic Nursing. 2007; 26(3): 169-174.

Pidala MJ, Donovan DL, Kepley RF et al. A prospective study on intermittent pneumatic compression in the prevention of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing total hip or total knee replacement. Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics. 1992; 175: 47-51.

Proctor MC, Greenfield LJ, Wakefield TW et al. A clinical comparison of pneumatic compression devices: the basis for selection. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 2001; 34(3): 459-464.

Proctor MC, Zajkowski PJ, Wakefield TW et al.Venous hemodynamic characteristics of pneumatic compression devices. Journal of Vascular Technology. 2001; 25(3): 141-145.

Stone MH, Limb D, Campbell P et al. A comparison of intermittent pneumatic calf compression and enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis in total hip replacement.
International Orthopaedics. 1996; 20: 367-369.

Sutkowska E, Wozniewski M, Gamian A et al. Intermittent pneumatic compression in stable claudicants: effect on hemostasis and endothelial function. International Angiology. 2009; 28(5): 373-379.

Turpie AG, Chin BS, Lip GY. Venous thromboembolism: pathophysiology, clinical features and prevention. BMJ. 2002; 325: 887-890.

Westrich G, Specht LM, Sharrock NE et al. Venous haemodynamics after total knee arthroplasty: evaluation of active dorsal to plantar flexion and several mechanical compression devices. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. 1998; 80B(6): 1057-1066.

Woodcock JP and Morris RJ. The effect of the Kendall SCD™ and Huntleigh DVT30 garments on femoral and popliteal vein blood flow measurements. ArjoHuntleigh Clinical Report. 2002.